Cities have currently the potential to serve as living-labs and as research units for large-scale environments on Earth. Advances in open data platforms, integration and accessibility are needed for ‘smart, sustainable cities’.

Within this area context, research involves urban science, design, and engineering with applications in areas such as energy utilization, air quality maintenance, transportation systems, internet-of-things connectivity, and smart cities.

Moreover, high priority will be on the ocean-city interface with relevance to Areas #1 and #2, coastal cities are prioritized and relevant climate change, sea-level rise, temperature and natural disaster monitoring, and development of potential solutions to emerging urban problems.

City at night