The SES Doctoral Program at the University of Coimbra aims to develop its students' abilities to contribute to interdisciplinary interventions in areas such as the efficient use of energy, centralized or decentralized energy production, or the distribution of energy. Students who earn a PhD degree through this program understand the technological, economic, and environmental challenges facing new energy systems. They learn to analyze systems and their interrelations and are able to develop research activities and tackle highly complex problems concerning the energy-environment dynamic.

In addition to mandatory courses (M) on Research Methodology, Energy, environment and Sustainability, Innovation and Entrepreneurship and Thesis Project, in the first year, students may choose from a range of optional courses (O) in the areas of Buildings and Urban Environment (life-cycle analysis construction and equipment, interaction between buildings and their environment, and planning and decision support using geographical information systems) and Energy Systems and Policy (energy and environmental economics, energy markets in their various types of organization and regulation, efficient use of energy by overcoming market barriers, and the organization of transportation systems for sustainability). More general courses are also available, including Energy Planning and Sustainable Development, Industrial Ecology, Decision Analysis and Fundamentals of Operations Research. In total students need to complete 60 credits (ECTS) in their first year.

Group Course Credits
Group I: Mandatory Courses Research Methodology (M) 6 1st
Energy, Environment and Sustainability (M) 6 1st
Innovation and Entrepreneurship 6 2nd
Thesis Project (M) 12 1st and 2nd
PhD Thesis 180 3rd semester to conclusion
Group II: Buildings and Urban Environment Energy Management in Buildings (O) 6 1st
Environment and Space Organization 6 2nd
Indoor Environmental Quality (O) 6 1st
Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) in Buildings 6 2nd
Building Technology and Rehabilitation for Façades and Roofs (O) 6 2nd
Buildings and Environment (O) 6 2nd
Group III: Energy Systems and Policy Energy Economics and Energy Markets (O) 6 1st
Environmental Economics (O) 6 2nd
Energy Management in Industry (O) 6 1st
Policies for Energy Market Transformation 6 2nd
Renewable Energy Systems (O) 6 2nd
Transportation and Energy (O) 6 1st
Group V: Other elective courses offered by UC Decision Analysis (O) 6 2nd
Industrial Ecology (O) 6 1st
Fundamentals of Operations Research (O) 6 1st
Energy Planning and Sustainable Development (O) 6 2nd


Course Description

Thesis Project

1st and 2nd semester, Mandatory, 12ECTS

Each student’s prospective PhD thesis supervisor (assigned at the beginning of the semester).

Main topics

  • Developing a thesis project

Learning outcomes

By the end of this course, the student will have written a detailed research proposal, and will be able to defend it before the faculty and her/his peers.

Energy Management in Buildings

1st Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS

Lecturers: António Gomes Martins – Full professor, Computers and Electrical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra

Álvaro Gomes – Assistant Professor, Computers and Electrical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra

Main topics

  • Introductory concepts
  • Energy networks; power factor compensation
  • Efficient use of energy
  • Building design for energy efficiency - passive solar technologies
  • HVAC systems
  • Energy tariffs
  • Energy audits
  • Integrated generation of energy in buildings
  • Building management systems
  • Energy building codes and regulations

Learning outcomes

Upon successful completion of the course, the students are capable of actively participating in multidisciplinary teams dedicated to energy efficient building design. They are also able to perform systematic energy diagnoses of buildings and to identify measures for increasing energy performance of audited buildings.

Indoor Environmental Quality

1st Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS

Manuel Carlos Gameiro da Silva – Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra

Main topics

  • Indoor air quality: general concepts; Sick-Building Syndrome; key elements in indoor air pollutants
  • Methodologies for air quality evaluation: Legal framework and existing regulations; strategies for creating good IAQ
  • Thermal Environment: thermal balance of the human body; mechanisms of thermoregulation; evaluation indices of thermal environment; standards for the evaluation of thermal environments (ISO 7730, ISO 7726 e ISO 7243); measurements equipment and its requirements
  • Lighting: spectrum of electromagnetic radiation; lighting quality; tadiometric and photometric units; requirements for indoor lighting
  • Noise: basic concepts; major descriptors, human perception of sound; noise measurement equipment and requirements; sound frequency analysis; indoor acoustic conditioning; acoustic quality indices
  • Vibrations: basic concepts; major descriptors; corrective measurements; measurement equipment and its requirements

Learning outcomes

By the end of this course, students will have the skills to actively participate in multidisciplinary design and project-efficient building teams in terms of energy efficiency. They also will have the skills to identify and characterize, in terms of energy use, environmentally and economically, measures to rationalize energy consumption in buildings.

Buildings and Environment

2nd Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS

Divo Quintela – Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra

Main topics

Sun-Earth astronomical relationships; characterization of solar radiation, meteorological data, measuring devices; fraction of insolation; calculation of the solar radiation incident on horizontal and inclined surfaces (ground albedo; direct, diffuse and reflected components). Applications: solar thermal collectors and passive solar design. Building with climate. Atmospheric boundary layer. Modeling techniques of wind loads in buildings: wind tunnels and computational fluid dynamics. Typical flow patterns around buildings. Wind effects on building ventilation. Air quality in urban areas. Interaction with buildings. Influence of the location of the source. Simulation models. Urban climatology. The heat island. Energy balance. Environmental comfort: the aerothermal perspective. Climate change and sustainable development. Extreme thermal episodes: heat and cold waves. Prevention and risk assessment: the thermal performance of the built environment and the protection of the occupants.

Learning outcomes

The aim is to develop potential for practical application related to different interactions between buildings and the environment. The study of fundamental notions about solar radiation and the atmospheric wind leads to different perspectives which can be used and focused on the built environment. This UC provides skills to address different areas, all with great relevance to the project definition, as the bioclimatic design of buildings, the rational use of energy and the sustainable development. The air quality in urban areas, the environmental comfort, the planning of urban spaces of leisure, climate change, the exposure to episodes of heat stress, the prevention of the associated hazards and their effects on health are other examples of content addressed in the discipline.

Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) in Buildings

2nd Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS

Adélio Gaspar – Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra

Main topics

  1. Introduction: historical notes; fundamental concepts
  2. Air conditioning and distribution systems
  3. Moist air properties and conditioning processes
  4. Comfort and health in indoor environments
  5. Heating and cooling loads
  6. Ventilation fundamentals
  7. Refrigeration: basic concepts

Learning outcomes

The main scope of this course is to present and develop the fundamental concepts having to do with the climatization of buildings and related systems. We will consider topics related with health and thermal comfort, building thermal behavior and loads, psichrometric processes, ventilation principles and HVAC components and systems, and will give students the necessary background with which to proceed in the design, analysis and operation of HVAC systems.

Building Technology and Rehabilitation for Façades and Roofs

2nd Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS


José Raimundo Mendes da Silva – Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, University of Coimbra

Main topics

The primary elements of the building and its contribution to the hygrothermal performance of buildings. Approach on opaque facades, roofs (flat and inclined) and glazing following 4 thematic sub-chapters:

1.Requirements: Functional requirements. Specificity of requirements on hygrothermal and acoustic performance.

2. Materials: Description and identification of characteristics of materials for structures, technic layers, finishing and auxiliary components.

3. Design / project: Multidisciplinary approach to design performance-based (current surface and details)

4. Technology: Technological approach of the several phases of the construction and of the maintenance, including the approach to their constraints

5. Rehabilitation: Strategy and technical solutions for functional (non-structural) rehabilitation of façades and roofs.

Learning outcomes

Provide the students with knowledge of building technology:

- To design, calculate and define conditions for implementing primary construction elements (walls, roofs and glazing) depending on the functional requirements and also to adapt them to different situations.

- Knowing the various types of construction materials available for constructing facades, roofs and glazed with identifying their technological features and the limitations of their use.

- To observe, identify and describe constructive solutions existing in facades and roofs, evaluating their expected performance in a particular functional context, particularly in the hygrothermal performance, as well as rehabilitation strategies for their improvement.

Energy Economics and Energy Markets

1st Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS

Patrícia Silva – Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra

Main topics

Energy value chain economics. Structure of energy demand and supply. Rationale for and public policies in energy markets: services of economic general interest and sectoral regulation. Electricity market reforms and competition in the electricity industry. Designing markets for electricity. Market power, energy crisis, security of supply, market failures and externalities. Political economy of deregulation and competition in wholesale electricity markets. Energy finance and risk management: spot and futures price formation.

Volatility and hedging instruments. Building of the electricity European internal market as a case study.

Impacts of renewable energy deployment on socio-economic dimensions.

Learning outcomes

Acknowledge students with energy economic concepts, both in analytical and modelling terms. Promote research skills in frontier areas as Economy-Business-Engineering. Promote awareness of policy and decision-making processes affecting energy management and development in both government and industry, including the economic, policy, regulatory and institutional drivers that shape management decisions.

Environmental Economics

2nd Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS

Eduardo Barata – Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra

Luís Cruz – Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra

Main topics

1. The Environmental Economics field of study.

2. Natural resource economics.

3. Economics of pollution.

4. Total Economic Value of environmental goods and services.

5. Environmental strategies and policy.

Learning outcomes

1. To identify the main topics analyzed in the disciplines studying the relationships between the economy, the environment and society.

2. To discuss the need for environmentally sound solutions to global/regional problems, namely including the identification of specific policies aimed at promoting sustainable development strategies;

3. To establish the concept of sustainable development and identify basic strategies for its promotion.

4. To recognize and adjust the concepts of externalities and market failures to the context of Environmental Economics.

5. To know and understand the strengths and weaknesses of the major approaches to: the theory of natural resources; the economics of pollution; and the environmental economic valuation.

These learning outcomes contribute to develop several skills, namely those of critical reasoning, analysis and synthesis, problem solving, information interpretation and analysis, and group interaction.

Energy Management in Industry

1st Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS


António Gomes Martins – Full Professor, Computers and Electrical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra

Álvaro Gomes – Assistant Professor, Computers and Electrical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra

José Baranda Ribeiro – Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of coimbra

Main topics

  • Introductory concepts
  • Energy networks; power factor compensation
  • Efficient use of energy
  • Energy tariffs
  • Energy audits
  • Rational use of energy in industry - a planning perspective
  • Technical management systems
  • Thermal energy
  • Combined Cold-Heat and Power production

Learning outcomes

Upon successful completion of the course, the students are capable of identifying and planning measures for the efficient use of energy resources in industry, in both perspectives, technical and economic. Additionally, the students will be capable of critically analyzing methodological approaches to the diagnosis and to the recommended or implemented corrective measures.

Renewable Energy Systems

2nd Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS

Almerindo Ferreira – Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra

Main topics

0. Renewable versus non-renewable sources of energy: Overview of renewable sources of energy and renewable energy technologies; Sun: The origin of renewable energy flows

1. Solar energy fundamentals of solar radiation (solar system, sun apparent path, attenuation of the solar radiation, solar energy at the earth surface); Solar thermal systems; Solar photovoltaic conversion. Applications.

2. Wind energy: The atmospheric boundary layer. Prediction of wind speed: analytical models and numerical models. Wind energy potential. Propeller-type converters. Wind power electric generator technologies.

3. Bioenergy: Biomass types. Biofuels for transportation. Waste-to-energy technologies and biogas. Biorefinery

4. Hydroelectricity including mini-hydro and pumped storage

5. Ocean and water energy: Water flows. Ocean waves, tides and currents. Available technology systems: Oscillating water column (OWC), Archimedes wave swing (AWS).

6. Geothermal energy

7. Energy storage systems.

Learning outcomes

The main objective of this course consists on the transmission of a broad view of the actual society energy problems, specifically in what concerns the needs and advantages of using renewable energy resources. The available options for renewable resources are addressed, with emphasis on the existing technologies for attainment and production of energy. The focus is directed toward thermal and photovoltaic solar systems, wind energy, hydraulic systems, biomass and production of biofuel, wave and tide energy, and geothermal energy. Storage energy options are also addressed, as well its applications.

Transportation and Energy

1st Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS

João Coutinho – Associate Professor, Civil & Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra
Manuel Carlos Gameiro da Silva – Associate Professor, Civil & Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra

Main topics

  • Transportation and energy: environmental, economic and social aspects. Environmental impacts of transportation. Ecological footprint of regions, countries and cities, and respective component related to energy requirements and transportation. Energy consumption factors. Economic energy efficiency.
  • Vehicles technology and energy efficiency related aspects; Movement equations.
  • Transportation modes and respective energy requirements. Evolution of motorization rates. Evolution of vehicle efficiency and lifecycle energy requirements. Fossil fuels and alternative fuels.
  • Transportation impacts on sustainability. Indicators. Sustainable transportation solutions.
  • Urban systems evolution and new trends. The influence of urban form in energy requirements. Urban mobility and transportation planning. Transportation demand planning. Modal shift private car - public transportation and reduction of energy requirements.

Learning outcomes

To provide students with knowledge concerning:

- the relationships among transportation, energy, environment, urban and regional planning, sustainability;

- the importance of urban and transportation planning in energy requirements;

- the importance of vehicle technologies in energy efficiency;

- transportation modes and respective energy requirements;

- decision-making analysis related to problems of transportation and energy.

Decision Analysis

2nd Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS Lecturer:
Luís Dias – Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra

Main topics

Three recurring themes in decision processes are addressed: to deal with uncertainty, to aggregate multiple evaluation criteria, and to determine a collective preference form individual preferences:

1. Introduction to the course and the theme of decision analysis

2. Decision under uncertainty

2.1. Heuristics and biases

2.2. Simple decision rules and expected value criterion

2.3. Decision trees and influence diagrams

2.4. Expected value of information

2.5. Expected utility theory

3. Multicriteria evaluation

3.1. Structuring: actors, actions, points of view, criteria, scales and problem types

3.2. How decisions are made: a few simple methods

3.3. Additive multiattribute value/utility functions

3.4. ELECTRE methods

3.5. Other methods

4. Group decision

4.1. Social choice: simple voting, multiple voting, ordinal voting

4.2. Social choice: theoretical results

4.3. Decisions without voting.

Learning outcomes

1. To know the different stages of a decision process and the information to be gathered and organized.

2. To enunciate and to avoid common errors in decision making processes, avoiding simplistic approaches and sustaining the advantages of formal decision aiding methodologies.

3. To take part in decision processes, either as a decision maker or as a consultant, by building appropriate models, to deal with uncertainty, to ponder economic, social, and environmental criteria and multiple opinions, and to involve the different stakeholders.

4. To recognize that there exist multiple decision aiding methodologies, each one with its advantages and disadvantages, being able of sustaining that some are more adequate than others.

These learning outcomes contribute to develop several generic skills, namely those of critical reasoning, analysis and synthesis, problem solving, information interpretation and management, and group interaction.

Industrial Ecology

1st Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS

Fausto Freire – Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra

Main topics

1. Industrial Ecology and Sustainability. Environmental management: Historical perspective. Case study: "The example of interdependence and evolution of the Kalundborg eco-industrial park". Introduction to IE tools: Material/Substance Flow Analysis (MFA/SFA) and ACV.

2. LCA: Methodology and applications. Main Phases. Multifunctionality: sub-division, system expansion and allocation methods. Data quality and uncertainty. Monte Carlo analysis, scenario and sensitivity analysis.

3. Extensions to the classic format of LCA. Input-output LCA. Life Cycle Management. Integrated environmental and economic optimization: “Life Cycle Activity Analysis”.

4. Preparation of a LCA proposal and implementation of a LCA study. Developing a life cycle model and implementing the LCA study using software.

Learning outcomes

1. Understand the concept of Industrial Ecology (IE) and the goals and limitations of the main IE tools. O2, Introduction to: Eco-park; Industrial Symbiosis. Material Flow Analysis. Environmental Economic models.

3. Understand the relevance and aim of performing Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies.

4. Perform a Literature Review of LCA studies. Select and interpret LCA and related studies (EPDs, Climate declarations, Carbon footprint) based on life cycle thinking.

5. Prepare and present a proposal for an LCA study.

6. Implement a LCA study. Define the goal and scope (and select an appropriate functional unit). Collect data and build up the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) based on different data collection strategies. Model a LC and implement in a software). Perform scenario analysis. Analyze and interpret LCIA results.

7. Evaluate data quality and uncertainty.

Fundamentals of Operations Research

1st Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS

Rita Coelho da Silva
– AssistantProfessor, Computers and Electrical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra

Main topics

  • Origin and nature of Operational Research (OR).
  • Linear Programming (LP). Problem formulation and development of PL mathematical models. The simplex method. Duality theory. Sensitivity analysis. Goal programming.
  • The transportation, assignment and transshipment problems.
  • Network optimization problems. Shortest path. Minimum spanning tree. Shortest path with fixed costs in nodes. Maximum flow. Minimum cost flow.
  • Non-linear programming. Types of non-linear programming (NLP) problems. NLP problems without constraints (single variable, multiple variables). Gradient methods. NLP problems with constraints. The Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. The modified simplex method for quadratic programming.

Learning outcomes

Providing the students with methodological and application competences in the context of optimization in engineering problems, in order to enable them to identify types of problems, develop adequate mathematical models that include the essential characteristics of those problems, and apply algorithms to generate the optimal solutions for the problems. Special attention is paid to the use of software packages to obtain the optimal solutions, as well as sensitivity analysis of optimal solutions in face of changes in the model data and parameters.

Innovation and Entrepreneurship

2nd Semester, Mandatory, 6 ECTS

Pedro Saraiva – Associate Professor, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra

Main topics

  • Entrepreneurship
  • The Relevance
  • From Ideas to Business
  • Ideas
  • Business Opportunities
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Structuring the Business
  • The team of entrepreneurs
  • Market Analysis
  • Competitive Analysis
  • Technology and Industrial Property
  • Business Models
  • Scheduling
  • Financial Sources
  • Economical Feasibility
  • Business Proposal
  • Some Business Development Risks
  • From Technology to Business
  • Technology Commercial Potential Evaluation
  • The Role of Researchers
  • Industrial Property Management
  • Technology Surveillance
  • Conversion Pipeline
  • Bioentrepreneurhsip and Energy Entrepreneurship
  • Innovation and Entrepreneurship Ecosystems
  • Conclusions

Learning outcomes

  • With this course students will develop the following skills and competencies
  • Clarify the concept of entrepreneurship, identify its attributes and the attributes of the entrepreneur, as well and entrepreneurship categories;
  • Put into evidence the relevance of entrepreneurship to development at local, regional, national and world levels;
  • Analyze and illustrate the transformation phases of a vague business idea into an organisational entity, improving the process efficacy and its probability of success;
  • Discuss the contributions of innovation and entrepreneurship and identify types of innovation;
  • Discuss the role of Higher Education Institutions and of Engineers professional in the promotion of entrepreneurship and Technology Based Entrepreneurship;
  • Students become skillful in transforming business ideas into projects and in managing teams in innovation processes.

Energetic Planning and Sustainable Development

2nd Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS

António Traça de Almeida – Full Professor, Computers and Electrical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra

Main topics

1. Sustainable Development: a) Energy and sustainable development, b) Climate changes and mitigation strategies, c) GHG emissions from electricity generation

2. Energy Planning Models: a) Conventional models and Integrated Resource Planning, b) Planning options and steps

3. Energy generation resources: a) Conventional generation, b) Renewable generation, c) Distributed generation

4. Planning and Management of Power Plants: a) Role of different types of power plants in the loads diagram, b) Dispatchable and intermittent power, c) Integration into the grid of intermittent generation

5. Energy Demand as a Planning Resource: a) Demand-Side Management resources, b) Demand-Side flexibility

6. Energy Storage: a) Energy storage technologies, b) Integration of energy storage into the grid

7. New Challenges and Tools of Energy Planning: a) Evolution of the electrical grid, b) Electric mobility and impact in the electrical grid, c) Smart Grids.

Learning outcomes

Upon successful completion of the course, the students will know the available resources to the energy planning, such as the generation, control of demand and energy storage technologies, as well with the structure of energy systems. The students will also understand the structure of demand and generation and the different tools to ensure the optimization between supply and demand, becoming able to develop energy plans for local and national level.

Policies for Energy Market Transformation

2nd Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS


António Gomes Martins – Full Professor, Computers and Electrical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra

Main topics

  • World energy supply and demand - global indicators.
  • The concept of market transformation (MT). Agents of MT.
  • Energy policy objectives. Relation between supply and demand options in energy policy.
  • Electric utilities as agents of market transformation: the Demand-Side Management concept.
  • Electricity market evolution. Influence of market liberalisation on DSM funding, regulation and praxis.
  • DSM objectives: strategic, operational, regarding the shape of the load diagram.
  • Approaches to DSM implementation. Cost-benefit analysis of DSM initiatives.
  • Integrated resource planning.
  • MT in liberalised electricity markets: barriers, agents, instruments. The role of regulation.
  • Public policies towards MT with a possible taxonomy on barriers to MT.
  • The concept of intelligent efficiency
  • The rebound effect: definition, types, influence on estimates of MT impact.
  • Free-ridership: definition, incidence, effect on the estimates of MT programmes impact.

Learning outcomes

Upon successful completion of the course, the students are capable of an informed perspective on the balance between economic and energy efficiencies in the definition of energy public policies and in the praxis of the economic agents. They shall also be capable of identifying barriers to market transformation for sustainability and of proposing effective measures for circumventing the barriers.

Environment and Space Organization

2nd Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS


João Paulo Cardielos – Assistant Professor, Architecture Department, University of Coimbra

Main topics

  • Architectural urban culture
  • Reset concepts: urban, rural hybrid
  • Urban sprawl - contemporary diffused territories
  • History urban density
  • Demographics
  • Environment and Society
  • Concepts: green; ecological; bioclimatic and sustainable design
  • Background
  • What is being done
  • Environment and environmental strategies: new paradigm in architecture
  • Problematic and structuring
  • Climate change (energy and CO2)
  • Mitigation and Adaptation
  • Other methods
  • Design and planning of sustainable cities
  • Design strategies: categorization
  • Earth: landscape, place, solar geometry; materials and technologies, and construction
  • Air: winds, cooling and environmental conditioning
  • Water: the resource, network management and hydraulic flood risks
  • Fire: lighting, heating, solar gains and energies
  • Life: humans and biodiversity ; comfort and quality of life
  • Merger, symbiosis, holistic, and conflicting dimensions in multi-scale approach to projects

Learning outcomes

O1. Knowing the concepts and steps of the recent history of sustainable development.

O2. Justifying integration of environmental strategies as a conceptual paradigm, in the drawings of urban space and architecture. Climate changes - mitigation and adaptation.

O3. Justifying the inclusion of sustainable design strategies in the early stages of architectural design.

O4. Recognizing the multiplicity of working methodologies and the essence of multi-scale architectural conception. Experiencing the dimensions of converging and conflicting adaptation strategies, in urban scales and architectural objects.

Energy, Environment and Sustainability

1st Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS


Antonio Gomes Martins – Full Professor, Computers and Electrical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra

Manuel Carlos Gameiro da Silva – Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra

Main topics

  • Sustainability: concept and approaches. The CO2 and the global warming issue. Energy forms and sustainability. Energy under two perspectives: supply and demand.
  • Environment: concept and context for energy use. Energy as an environmental stress factor. Impact assessment of energy systems.
  • The new energy paradigm: decentralized, renewable and demand side oriented. Indicators for sustainability. Tools for managing and monitoring energy, environment and sustainability.
  • Energy efficiency: energy planning, energy demand side management and technology.

Learning outcomes

To propose a background knowledge on critical energy issues such as sustainability and environment, global and local, in order to make students aware of values to refer to when dealing with more specific themes related to energy conversion and, in particular, energy use and management rather than just energy economics or even energy technologies. The emphasis on the energy system approach to tackle the energy issues is permanently stressed as the one that is long lasting and sustainable one.