The Executive Masters is a one-year program addressing multidisciplinary core areas in energy systems. The executive Masters corresponds to an Advanced Studies Program in the University of Porto post-graduation system (the graduate is awarded a Bologna 3rd Cycle certificate).

The Executive Masters program offers three base graduation profiles, which share a considerable number of courses:

Profile A: Energy Planning
Profile B: Sustainable Built Environment
Profile C: Advanced Electric Networks

In each semester students should choose 3 of the mandatory courses (M) and 1 of the optional courses (O) in a way to sum up a total of 60 credits (ECTS). Most courses are shared with the PhD program.

The structure of the Executive Masters in Sustainable Energy Systems is detailed in the table below:

Group(s)CourseCredits
(ECTS)
Semester
A,B,CEnergy, Environment and Sustainability (M)7.51st
A,BEnergy Planning (M)7.51st
CEnergy Markets and Regulation (M)7.51st
A,BAnalysis and Simulation of Thermal Systems (M)7.51st
C,DSignals, Dynamics and Control (M)7.51st
A,CIntroduction to Economics * (O)61st
A,CEconomics of Natural Resources and the Environment * (O)61st
BProjects Evaluation and Externalities * (O)61st
CComputational Intelligence and Power Systems (O)7.51st
A,B,CSeminar (M)7.52nd
A,BEnergy Efficiency (M)7.52nd
CMarket Simulation (M)7.52nd
A,CEnergy Demand Side Management (M)7.52nd
C,DElectrical Systems with Renewables (M)7.52nd
AOptimization and Decision Support Techniques (O)7.52nd
BEnergy in Buildings (O)7.52nd
C

Forecasting

7.5

2nd

C

Methods for Optimal Power Flow

7.5

2nd

CWind Energy (O)7.52nd

* Courses offered by UTL/FCUL
+ Other modules can be proposed here


Course Description

Energy, Environment and Sustainability

1st Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
Lecturers:

Eduardo Oliveira Fernandes - Full Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Management, FEUP

Main topics

  • Sustainability: Concept and approaches. The CO2 and the global warming issue. Concept of energy and its implications. The urban (demand side) sustainable projects.
  • Environment: concept and context for energy use. The climate change issue. How to access the effects of the energy as the major environmental stress factor.
  • Energy. Concept, energy forms and sustainability.
  • Energy conversion. Energy efficiency. Exergy. Co-generation.
  • The new energy paradigm: decentralized, renewable and demand side oriented.
  • Impact assessment and strategic environment impact assessment. Impact of energy systems.
  • Energy for sustainable cities: potential and rationale for cities as "control volumes" for sustainability.
  • Sustainable buildings: Life cycle analysis.
  • Environmental Performance of Buildings: Concept, Methodologies and Case studies.
  • Indicators for sustainability. The qualitative and the invisible sustainability. Trends and expectations.
  • Critical issues on energy for the future.
  • Assignments presentations

Learning outcomes
To propose a background knowledge on critical energy issues such  as sustainability and environment, global and local,  in order to make students aware of values to refer to when dealing with more specific themes related to energy conversion and, in particular, energy use and management rather than just energy economics or even energy technologies. The emphasis on the energy system approach to tackle the energy issues is permanently stressed as the one that is long lasting and sustainable one.


Energy Planning

1st Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
Lecturers:

Vítor Leal - Invited Assistant Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, FEUP
Cláudio Monteiro - Assistant Professor, Dept. Electronics and Computing Engineering, FEUP

Main topics
Introduction: The scales of energy planning—national, regional, local; an historic perspective of energy systems; energy in the world today—context and trends

  • Energy systems organization and main technologies: demand, supply, conversion and distribution; the comprehensive technologies
  • The energy chain: useful, final, primary energy; useful energy/energy services; final energy; primary energy
  • Matching resources and demand: examples from the urban, regional and national contexts
  • Simulation and analysis tools: accounting tools (e.g., the LEAP); optimization tools (e.g., the TIMES-Markal)
  • Energy systems indicators: social indicators; economic indicators; environmental indicators. Use of indicators in energy planning
  • Energy demand: the sectors of energy demand—buildings, transportation, industry, others; methods and sources of information for monitoring the energy demand; forecast of energy demand
  • Energy resources: endogenous vs exogenous resources; characterization of endogenous resources
  • Energy vectors: electricity; gas; fuels; sun; biomass; others
  • Planning of electricity systems: general aspects of electricity system planning; power system generation planning; power system transport and distribution planning; distributed generation planning approach toward energy systems; a global chart of E.S.; main supply-side vectors and technologies; main demand uses and

Learning outcomes
Students will become familiar with the global structure of energy systems, its branches and main technologies; be able to understand the energy balance of a region (from local to global); understand the structure of the energy demand in its uses and energy vectors; understand and be able to coordinate the assessment of endogenous energy resources; develop competences in the optimization of the match supply-demand, in the local, regional and national contexts; and become able to develop an energy plan for a region.


Energy Markets and Regulation

1st Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
Lecturer: João Tomé Saraiva - Associate Professor, Dept. Electronics and Computing Engineering, FEUP
Maintopics

  • Analysis of the models and structures resulting from the adoption of market mechanisms in the electricity sector.
  • Discussion of access tariffs as a crucial element for the success of electricity market implementations, as well as tariff approaches. Discussion of the unbundling of ancillary services from active power: basic concepts and problems. Implementation of particular markets for some ancillary services and analysis of the situation in some countries.
  • Regulation and its historical evolution; regulatory strategies: Equilibrium models as a way to represent competitive electricity markets in which the players aim at maximizing their benefits.
  • Analysis of the interaction between futures and spot markets. Risk analysis and hedging in electricity markets. Introduction to the concept of option pricing and its use in electricity markets.
  • Investment analysis using equilibrium models and real options. Discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of both methods.

 

Learning outcomes
The course on Markets and Regulation will analyze the issues faced by firms and regulators in the new liberalized electricity markets. This involves analyzing: the most relevant models that have been used to form the new skeleton of power systems: unbundling of the integrated tariff systems in order to create additive non-biased systems; regulation and regulatory approaches; nodal marginal pricing; equilibrium models for energy pricing and investment analysis; futures markets and the use of real options for pricing electricity and evaluating generation plants. An important objective of this course is to help to develop students’ capacity to work autonomously, do bibliographic research, prepare written reports and deliver oral presentations.


Analysis and Simulation of Thermal Systems

1st Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
Lecturer: António Areosa Martins - Researcher, Dept. Chemical Engineering, FEUP

Main topics

  • How modeling/simulation can be integrated in the design, operation, and control of thermal systems.
  • Fundamentals of Thermodynamics: First and second laws, thermodynamic analysis of thermal systems.
  • Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics pertinent to thermal systems
    • Basic Physical principles.
    • Different modes of heat transfer and how they can be modeled.
    • Macroscopic vs. Microscopic modeling.
    • Modeling using analogies with electrical systems, definition of resistance to heat and  
    • fluid  flows.
    • Analysis of systems of practical interest: heat exchangers, buildings (whole or    
    • construction elements), among others.
  • Other types of models that are not directly based on physical principles:
    • Neural Networks.
    • Correlation methods.
  • Introduction to some strategies and tools to solve the equations resulting from the modeling of thermal systems
    • EES – Engineering Equation Solver
    • Trnsys, to solve transient problems involving thermal systems.
    • Matlab.
    • CFD Software: Ansys.
  • Other questions that could be relevant

Learning outcomes
The main goals are the presentation and discussion of the basic underlying physical phenomena needed to simulate thermal systems of practical interest, either analytically as well numerically. Different modeling strategies will be presented to the students. As a main goal it is intended that the students should be able to analyze, model and simulate thermal systems of practical interest.


Signals, Dynamics and Control

1st Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
Lecturers:
Maria Helena Vasconcelos - Assistant Professor, Dept. Electronics and Computing Engineering, FEUP
João Peças Lopes- Full Professor, Dept. Electronics and Computing Engineering, FEUP

Maintopics

  • Modeling of synchronous generators, loads, excitation systems and automatic voltage regulators (AVR), prime movers (hydraulic turbines, thermal units) and frequency regulation systems, for dynamic analysis studies.
  • Automatic Generation Control system and performance analysis in power systems with several control areas.
  • Dynamic response of the primary and secondary load-frequency control systems following system disturbances (load changes or loss of generation), using simulation software.
  • Power system oscillations eigenvalue analysis of linear systems
  • Design of power system damping controllers Emergency control actions related with load shedding triggered by frequency or voltage (underfrequency, df/dt and undervoltage).
  • Advanced stability enhancement techniques
  • Application of automatic learning techniques in order to provide fast dynamic security assessment of power systems.
  • Isolated and interconnected power systems, with high penetration of wind power production.

    Learning outcomes

    • Mastering the modeling of synchronous generators, loads, excitation systems, automatic voltage regulators (AVR), prime movers (hydraulic turbines, thermal units) and frequency regulation systems, for dynamic analysis studies.
    • Using dynamic simulation software Understanding several dynamic phenomena that arrive during normal and abnormal operating conditions that follows system disturbances.
    • Understanding the operation of Automatic Generation Control in systems with several control areas.
    • Identifying the nature of power system oscillations and characterize such oscillations using modal analysis. Understanding emergency control actions.
    • Understanding the methodology required to apply automatic learning techniques  to obtain on-line dynamic security assessment tools.

     

     


    Introduction to Economics

    1st Semester, Mandatory/Optional (must choose one of the two M/O), 6 ECTS
    Lecturer: Carlos Gouveia Pinto – Associate Professor, Dept. Economics, ISEG/UTL

    Main topics

    • Introduction
    • Consumer theory
    • Business theory
    • Markets
    • General equilibrium

    Learning outcomes
    This course aims to provide a solid foundation in microeconomics to those students whose background is not extensive in economics or business administration. Since most students will have taken introductory courses in these subjects, this program expands on previous knowledge through exposure to key economic theories as well as the mathematical and graphic application of economic theories.


    Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment

    1st Semester, Mandatory, 6 ECTS
    Lecturer: Manuel Pacheco Coelho - Assistant Professor, Dept. Economics, ISEG/UTL

    Main topics

    • The economy of natural resources
      • Basic model for the management of a renewable resource
      • Model dynamics and optimum control
      • The ‘tragedy of commons’ and the problem of property rights
      • Biodiversity and the risk of species extinction
      • Hotelling rule and the optimum management of non-renewable resources
    • Environmental Economics
      • Externalities and the ‘anatomy of the failed market’
      • Valorization of environmental goods
      • Economy of the pollution
      • Uncertainty, irreversibility and precaution
    • Case studies

    Learning outcomes
    This course focuses on the problems of natural resources management. Students learn to determine and substantiate the criteria that must be met to optimize resource use; explain the agent behaviors regarding the production and use of resources accounting for different market structures; establish representative behavior typologies regarding different institutional frameworks; and identify the politics and institutional frameworks that promote the efficient management of resources.


    Projects Evaluation and Externalities

    2nd Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS
    Lecturer: Muradali Ibrahimo - Assistant Professor, Dept. Economics, ISEG/UTL

    Main topics

    • Introduction to project evaluation
    • Project evaluation techniques
    • Economical analysis of projects
    • Analysis of the impacts of projects externalities
    • Risk assessment in project evaluation
    • Case studies in the energy sector

    Learning outcomes
    This course provides students with investment project evaluation techniques and the calculation of relevant externalities for decision making. Theoretical formulations will be provided, together with the analysis of case studies, including financial and economic aspects, impact and risk assessment. The energy sector will be used as a reference.


    Computational Intelligence and Power Systems

    1st Semester, Optional, 7.5 ECTS
    Lecturer: Vladimiro Miranda - Full Professor, Dept. Electronics and Computing Engineering, FEUP

    Maintopics

    • Information Theoretic Learning Training systems using entropy as criterion
    • Evolutionary algorithms
    • Common framework among Evolutionary Programming, Evolution Strategies and Genetic Algorithms; theoretical concepts behind evolutionary methods; probabilistic models for the rate of progress; self-adaptive models; self-adaptation in mutation and in recombination operators; correlation among space dimensions.
    • Particle Swarm models (PSO) Evolutionary PSO; stochastic star model for communication among individuals
    • Neural networks: TDNN (time delayed neural networks) and SOM (self-organizing maps); training of neural networks using EPSO.
    • Entropy as a criterion in evolutionary models for network training and parameter tuning.
    • Fuzzy Control
    • Applications of Computational Intelligence models and techniques to Power System problems.

     

    Learning outcomes
    Students will be able to understand the concepts underlying simulation and optimization based on learning and adaptation, making contact with the most advanced modern models and techniques. They will also gain advanced insight into the general problem of tuning parameters of models representative of real systems, as well as gain knowledge on the application of such techniques to selected power systems problems. The focus will be on problems with double characteristics: high complexity and large scale. On completion of this course, students will be move from naïve models to being able to build sophisticated models in a diversity of complex, large-scale Power Systems requiring optimization and parameter tuning.


    Seminar

    2nd Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
    Lecturers:
    Eduardo de Oliveira Fernandes
     - Full Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, FEUP
    João Peças Lopes - Full Professor, Dept. Electronics and Computing Engineering, FEUP
    Vítor Leal - Invited Assistant Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Management, FEUP

    Main topics

    • Research methodologies
    • Urban metabolism
    • Multi-objective scenarios
    • Shell on the long-term prospects for fossil fuels
    • European energy planning and regulations
    • Industrial ecology
    • Climate change economics

    Learning outcomes
    Through seminars given by invited speakers, students will be introduced to topics that are a complement to their studies, as well as information about other research centers’ R&D projects and projects that are being developed by industry.


    Energy Efficiency

    2nd Semester, Optional, 7.5 ECTS
    Lecturer: Eduardo de Oliveira Fernandes - Full Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, FEUP

    Main topics

    • Energy efficiency. Concept. Context. Ways of expressing ee. Assignments.
    • Energy quantification. Indicators. Benchmarking. Audit. Reporting.
    • Heat and the energy conversion processes. Basics of Thermodynamics. 
    • Thermodynamic cycles.
    • Energy qualification. The heat management issue. Exergy.
    • Energy efficiency and environment. Combustion.
    • Energy efficiency and environment. Combustion of biomass.
    • Co-generation and energy efficiency.
    • Energy efficiency and electricity case. 
    • Energy efficiency and technologies.
    • Energy efficiency systems approach. Cities.
    • Energy efficiency. Assignments presentation.

    Learning outcomes


    Market Simulation

    2nd Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
    Lecturer: Jorge Vasconcelos - Invited Full Professor, IN+, IST-Technical University of Lisbon 

    Main topics

    This course includes the following topics:

    • Simulation of market models and operating structures resulting from the adoption of market mechanisms in the electricity sector by optimization decomposition theory and DESS
    • Simulation of market models and operating structuresM
    • Decision rules by ISO/TSO Market Operators for security
    • Discriminatory and uniform price auctions
    • Market simulations of multiple periods Expand models to include bilateral, physical and financial contracts, and also transportation congestion
    • Scheduling ancillary services
    • Implementation of markets for ancillary services
    • Develop equilibrium models to represent competitive electricity markets
    • Integration of renewable/sustainable energy sources as distributed generation impacting the power system network
    • Environmental marketsGame theoretical models as adaptive agents
    • The interaction between futures and spot market strategies using risk analysis and hedging
    • Investment analysis using discounted cash flow from equilibrium models and stochastic processes valued by real options
    • Monte Carlo techniques, decision trees, dynamic programming, and real option binomial valuations

    Learning outcomes
    The course aims at analyzing the issues faced by firms and regulators in the new liberalized electricity markets by Decomposed Optimization Theory. The goal is to help students develop the capacity to work autonomously, do bibliographic research, prepare written reports and deliver oral presentations on the topic of markets and simulation.


    Energy Demand Side Management

    2nd Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
    Lecturers: Vítor Leal - Invited Assistant Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, FEUP

    Main topics

    • Introduction: the comprehensive approach toward DSM; from electric power systems peak shaving to territorial planning
    • The role of DSM today: an historic perspective of energy uses; DSM in light of the IPCC; other perspectives on DSM; the economics of DSM

    Evaluation methods
    Risk assessment

    • DSM in Residential Buildings
      • The envelope
      • Domestic appliances
      • Heat and cooling equipment
      • Building Integrated Renewables
    • DSM in Non-Residential Buildings
      • The envelope
      • Lighting
      • HVAC
      • Equipment
    • DSM in Industry
      • Energy uses in industry
      • Energy audits in industry
      • Process integration (Pinch method)
      • Cogeneration
      • Efficiency in electric machines
    • DSM in Transports
      • Efficiency and economics of Transportation modes
      • Vehicle technologies and efficiencies
      • Factors from outside: Land use/territorial planning
      • Perspectives on the future of transportation
    • DSM in Agriculture
    • DSM of Electricity
      • The perspective of the utilities
      • New perspectives
    • DSM and Market Mechanisms
      • Market Mechanisms for promoting DSM
      • The role of ESCOs

    Learning outcomes
    With this course, students will gain a comprehensive approach toward the Energy Demand Side Management at an Energy System; develop a methodology of critical analysis of the energy needs and of the factors that influence it in each of the Energy Systems sub-sectors: Buildings (residential and Non- Residential), Transportation, Industry, Agriculture, etc.; review the state-of-the-art and expected energy efficiency/demand-side management technologies and processes in each of the energy system sub-sectors; and review the international and national trends on energy-efficiency/demand-side management, including policies and market mechanisms.


    Electrical Systems with Renewables

    2nd Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
    Lecturers:

    João Peças Lopes - Full Professor, Dept. Electronics and Computing Engineering, FEUP
    Cláudio Monteiro - Assistant Professor, Dept.
    Electronics and Computing Engineering, FEUP

    Maintopics

    • Modeling of different types of renewable energy conversion systems; wind energy conversion technologies
    • Impacts of renewable energy conversion systems on power quality (Voltage deeps, Harmonic, Flicker)
    • Wind power integration
    • Photovoltaic systemsGrid code requirements and new hierarchical managing control structures.
    • Economic Issues: remuneration of renewable energy systems; participation of in electricity markets (including ancillary services markets); combined wind generation / storage operation Microgeneration and microgrids: Microsources,  microgrids: power electronic interfaces, service restoration,microgrid safety and electrical protection requirements, multi-microgrids, vehicle to grid.
    Learning outcomes

    Students will become familiar with different energy conversion systems that exploit renewable power sources, and with control techniques used namely in PV and wind generation. Students will be able to identify the main problems for operation and expansion of electric power systems resulting from a large scale integration of renewable power sources; will be familiar with different micro-generation technologies and its dynamic models; will understand MicroGrid operation and the need for SmartGrid development.


    Optimization and Decision Support Techniques

    2nd Semester, Optional, 7.5 ECTS
    Lecturers:

    Ana Maria Camanho - Assistant Professor, Dept. Industrial Engineering and Management, FEUP
    Manuel Matos - Full Professor, Dept. Electronics and Computing Engineering, FEUP

    Maintopics

    • Linear programming
    • Transportation and Assignment problems
    • Network optimization problems: Shortest-Path problems and Maximum Flow problems
    • Non-linear programming
    • Introduction to performance measurement methods. Efficiency assessments using Data Envelopment Analysis and evaluation of productivity change over time using the Malmquist index.
    • Queuing theory. Basic structure of queuing models Simulation. Event and process-based approaches to discrete simulation. Design and analysis of simulation models.
    • Metaheuristics
    • Multicriteria decision-aid. The role of the Decision Maker.
    • Multiattribute problems. Trade-off techniques, value functions and the French School.
    • Multiobjective problems. Techniques for generating nondominated alternatives. Interactive methods.
    • Uncertainty and Risk. Decision trees. Decision paradigms. Utility theory. Robust approaches. Methodologies based on multiple risk and opportunity indices.

     

    Learning outcomes
    The main objective of this course is to convey to students a global vision of management science principles and techniques, stressing in particular the role of quantitative methods in decision processes involving energy systems. The specific objectives are for students to: become familiar with several optimization techniques; become capable of formulating and solving non-linear programming models using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions and interpreting the economic implications of the solution obtained; be able to apply numeric methods to estimate the solution of non-linear optimization models; become capable of using performance assessment methods; understand the principles of queuing theory and  select the appropriate queuing model to analyze a real-world situation; be familiar with discrete event simulation and able to construct simple simulation models using Arena software; understand the principles of multicriteria decision-aid, and  formulate and address multicriteria and multiobjective problems, and decision problems in an uncertain environment.


    Energy in Buildings

    2nd Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
    Lecturers:
    Vítor Leal - Invited Assistant Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, FEUP
    José Luis Alexandre - Assistant Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, FEUP

    Main topics

    • Introduction to energy in buildings
    • Basics of Thermal Comfort
    • Calculation of Thermal Loads
    • Simulation tools: main physical and mathematical models and  dodelling issues
    • Bioclimatic strategies
    • Lighting and other electricity uses
    • HVAC Equipments
    • Integration of renewables into buildings
    • Energy audits
      • Non-technical strategies to achieve energy-efficient buildings: the role of the regulations, labelling schemes, voluntary schemes,regulations, framework of European and Portuguese regulations, EPBD, SCE, RSECE and RCCTE

    Learning outcomes
    The goal is for students to: become familiar with the concepts related to the thermal balance, energy use and energy efficiency of buildings; be able to understand the methods for evaluating the energy demand of buildings and for achieving efficient solutions; be able to perform energy simulation and assessment of simple buildings; know the main technologies of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning in Buildings; know the methodology, phases and expected outputs of energy audits in existing buildings; and become aware of the non-strictly technical issues influencing the energy performance of buildings.


    Wind Energy

    2nd Semester, Optional, 7.5 ECTS
    Lecturers:
    Álvaro Rodrigues - Assistant Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Management, FEUP
    João Peças Lopes - Full Professor, Dept. Electronics and Computing Engineering, FEUP

    Main topics

    • Principles and limits of wind energy conversion.
    • Basic aerodynamics of wind turbines blades.
    • Control and power limitation mechanisms.
    • Wind circulation and dynamics.
    • Wind measuring campaigns. Wind resource and wind potential.
    • Atmospheric flow models. The project of a wind farm. Selection of the wind turbines. Wind resource and wind farm layout. Estimating the energy yield. Losses and uncertainties. Warranties. Economic aspects.
    • Wind energy in the renewable panorama. The wind industry. Evolution and maturity of the technology. The Portuguese case – a successful history.
    • Perspectives for the future. Onshore, offshore and micro generation.
    • Technical regulations for the interconnection of wind farms to Power Systems.
    • Wind power and reserve assessment needs.
    • Wind power in isolated power systems and advanced control and management systems.
    • On-shore and off-shore wind farms. Transmission systems for off-shore wind farms.
    • Hydrogen as a mean of transporting and balancing wind power production.

     

      Learning outcomes
      Students will: become familiar with wind resource assessment related issues and with the particularities of atmospheric flows regarding the conversion of wind energy; understand the working principles of wind energy conversion systems; be familiar with and discuss issues related to the planning of a wind farm, technology selection and wind farm follow-up; be aware of the main control techniques used in wind generation; understand the main problems related with the electrical design of wind farms on-shore and off-shore; be capable of identifying the main problems for operation and expansion of electric power systems resulting from a large-scale integration of renewable power sources; understand the need to forecast wind with accuracy.