The SES PhD Program at the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto (FEUP) is a joint operation of the Department of Mechanical Engineering and the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. The MIT Portugal Program general areas of Energy Systems Planning, Sustainable Built Environment and Smart Grids are structured in four main tracks:

Profile A:  Energy Systems Planning
Profile B:  Sustainable Cities and Regions
Profile C:  Energy Markets
Profile D:  Advanced Electric Networks

The Program coordination is committed to knowledge-sharing with international and other MIT Portugal Program participating universities (e.g., by joint teaching of courses in Economics, Buildings and Sustainability). The PhD Program builds also upon the experience and ongoing projects of INESC Porto (Energy Systems Unit) and IDMEC (Unit of Advanced Studies for Energy in the Built Environment, and the Unit of Sustainable Energy Technologies) which have a long-established relationship with industry. Students will have the opportunity to study real-world applications of the methodologies used in ongoing flagship projects of the MIT Portugal Program such as the ‘Green Islands’.

In the first year of the PhD Program, In each semester students must choose 3 of the mandatory courses (M) and 1 of the optional courses (O) in a way to sum up a total of 60 credits (ECTS).

The curricular plan of the PhD in Sustainable Energy Systems for the 2014/2015 academic year will suffer important changes, as a result of the compliance with the application that MIT Portugal and respective Universities and Research Centres in the Sustainable Energy Systems focus area made to the FCT Doctoral Programs Program The newest version of the curricular plan will be made available as soon as possible.

Group(s)CourseCredits
(ECTS)
Semester
A,B,C,DEnergy, Environment and Sustainability (M)7.51st
A,BEnergy Planning (M)7.51st
C,DMarkets and Regulation (M)7.51st
A,BAnalysis and Simulation of Thermal Systems (M)7.51st
C,DSignals, Dynamics and Control (M)7.51st
A,CIntroduction to Economics * (O)61st
A,CEconomics of Natural Resources and the Environment * (O)61st
BProjects Evaluation and Externalities * (O)61st
B+ 1st
DComputational Intelligence and Power Systems (O)7.51st
A,B,C,DSeminar (M)7.52nd
A,BEnergy Efficiency (M)7.52nd
C,DMarket Simulation (M)7.52nd
A,BEnergy Demand Side Management (M)7.52nd
C,DElectrical Systems with Renewables (M)7.52nd
AOptimization and Decision Support Techniques (O)7.52nd
AOptimization of Energy Systems * (O)62nd
A+ 2nd
BEnergy in Transportation * (O)62nd
BEnergy in Buildings (O)7.52nd
CForecasting 2nd
CMethods for Optimal Power Flow 2nd
DWind Energy (O)7.52nd

* Courses offered by UTL/FCUL
+ Other courses can be proposed here


Course Description

Energy, Environment and Sustainability

1st Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
Lecturers:

Eduardo Oliveira Fernandes - Full Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Management, FEUP

Main topics

  • Sustainability: Concept and approaches. The CO2 and the global warming issue. Concept of energy and its implications. The urban (demand side) sustainable projects.
  • Environment: concept and context for energy use. The climate change issue. How to access the effects of the energy as the major environmental stress factor.
  • Energy. Concept, energy forms and sustainability.
  • Energy conversion. Energy efficiency. Exergy. Co-generation.
  • The new energy paradigm: decentralised, renewable and demand side oriented.
  • Impact assessment and strategic environment impact assessment. Impact of energy systems.
  • Energy for sustainable cities: potential and rationale for cities as "control volumes" for sustainability.
  • Sustainable buildings: Life cycle analysis.
  • Environmental Performance of Buildings: Concept, Methodologies and Case studies.
  • Indicators for sustainability. The qualitative and the invisible sustainability. Trends and expectations.
  • Critical issues on energy for the future.
  • Assignments presentations

Learning outcomes
To propose a background knowledge on critical energy issues such  as sustainability and environment, global and local,  in order to make students aware of values to refer to when dealing with more specific themes related to energy conversion and, in particular, energy use and management rather then just energy economics or even energy technologies. The emphasys on the energy system approach to tackle the energy issues is permanently stressed as the one that is long lasting and sustainable one.


Energy Planning

1st Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
Lecturers:

Vítor Leal - Invited Assistant Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, FEUP
Cláudio Monteiro - Assistant Professor, Dept. Electrical and Computing Engineering, FEUP

Main topics
Introduction: The scales of energy planning—national, regional, local; an historic perspective of energy systems; energy in the world today—context and trends

  • Energy systems organization and main technologies: demand, supply, conversion and distribution; the comprehensive technologies
  • The energy chain: useful, final, primary energy; useful energy/energy services; final energy; primary energy
  • Matching resources and demand: examples from the urban, regional and national contexts
  • Simulation and analysis tools: accounting tools (e.g., the LEAP); optimization tools (e.g., the TIMES-Markal)
  • Energy systems indicators: social indicators; economic indicators; environmental indicators. Use of indicators in energy planning
  • Energy demand: the sectors of energy demand—buildings, transportation, industry, others; methods and sources of information for monitoring the energy demand; forecast of energy demand
  • Energy resources: endogenous vs exogenous resources; characterization of endogenous resources
  • Energy vectors: electricity; gas; fuels; sun; biomass; others
  • Planning of electricity systems: general aspects of electricity system planning; power system generation planning; power system transport and distribution planning; distributed generation planning approach toward energy systems; a global chart of E.S.; main supply-side vectors and technologies; main demand uses and

Learning outcomes
Students will become familiar with the global structure of energy systems, its branches and main technologies; be able to understand the energy balance of a region (from local to global); understand the structure of the energy demand in its uses and energy vectors; understand and be able to coordinate the assessment of endogenous energy resources; develop competences in the optimization of the match supply-demand, in the local, regional and national contexts; and become able to develop an energy plan for a region.


Markets and Regulation

1st Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
Lecturer: João Tomé Saraiva - Associate Professor, Dept. Electrical and Computing Engineering, FEUP
Main topics

  • Analysis of the models and structures resulting from the adoption of market mechanisms in the electricity sector. Review of basic concepts of wholesale and retail, the ISO/TSO and Market Operator. Discussion of the pay-as-bid versus uniform price auction, simple bids versus complex bids, bilateral physical and financial contracts, congestion and ways to address it.
  • This study will be complemented and illustrated by analyzing the EU Directives on the Internal Electricity Market and the structure and operation results in some countries or geographical areas as Spain, the Nordpool, and Britain.
  • Discussion of access tariffs as a crucial element for the success of electricity market implementations, as well as tariff approaches, with particular emphasis on nodal pricing, calculation models and congestion rent. The Portuguese transmission network will be used to illustrate these concepts, as well as the advantages and drawbacks of nodal pricing.
  • The scheduling of ancillary services in this new structure. Discussion of the unbundling of ancillary services from active power: basic concepts and problems. Implementation of particular markets for some ancillary services and analysis of the situation in some countries. Particular emphasis will be given to voltage control/reactive power.
  • Regulation and its historical evolution. Regulatory strategies: Cost-Of-Service/Rate of Return, and incentives approaches, including price caps, revenue caps and benchmark regulation. The regulation of transmission and distribution wiring activities in some countries. The Portuguese tariff system will be used as an example of an unbiased additive system. In this scope, we will address regulated activities, the corresponding tariffs, costs and adopted regulated strategies, the composition of basic tariffs to construct access tariffs and the incentives to improve Quality of Service and the more effective operation of networks included in this system. We will study the response of regulated wiring companies to the signals transmitted by the Regulatory Board, namely in terms of some Quality of Service indices.
  • Equilibrium models as a way to represent competitive electricity markets in which the players aim at maximizing their benefits. This topic covers game theoretical models such as Cournot, Bertrand equilibrium models, analyzing basic concepts, assumptions and illustrative examples.
  • Analysis of the interaction between futures and spot markets. Risk analysis and hedging in electricity markets. Introduction to the concept of option pricing and its use in electricity markets.
  • Investment analysis using equilibrium models and real options. Discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of both methods.

Learning outcomes
The course on Markets and Regulation wil analyze the issues faced by firms and regulators in the new liberalized electricity markets. This involves analyzing: the most relevant models that have been used to form the new skeleton of power systems: unbundling of the integrated tariff systems in order to create additive non-biased systems; regulation and regulatory approaches; nodal marginal pricing; equilibrium models for energy pricing and investment analysis; futures markets and the use of real options for pricing electricity and evaluating generation plants. An important objective of this course is to help to develop students’ capacity to work autonomously, do bibliographic research, prepare written reports and deliver oral presentations.


Analysis and Simulation of Thermal Systems

1st Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
Lecturer: António Areosa Martins - Researcher, Dept. Chemical Engineering, FEUP

Main topics

  • How modeling/simulation can be integrated in the design, operation, and control of thermal systems.
  • Fundamentals of Thermodynamics: First and second laws, thermodynamic analysis of thermal systems.
  • Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics pertinent to thermal systems
    • Basic Physical principles.
    • Different modes of heat transfer and how they can be modeled.
    • Macroscopic vs. Microscopic modeling.
    • Modeling using analogies with electrical systems, definition of resistance to heat and  
    • fluid  flows.
    • Analysis of systems of practical interest: heat exchangers, buildings (whole or    
    • construction elements), among others.
  • Other types of models that are not directly based on physical principles:
    • Neural Networks.
    • Correlation methods.
  • Introduction to some strategies and tools to solve the equations resulting from the modeling of thermal systems
    • EES – Engineering Equation Solver
    • Trnsys, to solve transient problems involving thermal sysytems.
    • Matlab.
    • CFD Software: Ansys.
  • Other questions that could be relevant

Learning outcomes
The main goals are the presentation and discussion of the basic underlying physical phenomena needed to simulate thermal systems of practical interest, either analytically as well numerically. Different modelling strategies will be presented to the students. As a main goal it is intended that the students should be able to analyse, model and simulate thermal systems of practical interest.


Signals, Dynamics and Control

1st Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
Lecturers:
Maria Helena Vasconcelos - Assistant Professor, Dept. Electrical and Computing Engineering, FEUP
João Peças Lopes - Full Professor, Dept. Electrical and Computing Engineering, FEUP

Main topics

  • Detailed modeling of synchronous generators, loads, excitation systems and automatic voltage regulators (AVR), prime movers (hydraulic turbines, thermal units) and frequency regulation systems, for dynamic analysis studies.
  • Modeling Automatic Generation Control system and performance analysis in power systems with several control areas.
  • Modeling and study the dynamic response of the primary and secondary load-frequency control systems following system disturbances (load changes or loss of generation), using simulation software.
  • Analysis of power system oscillations due to the lack of damping torque at the generators rotors.
  • Study of these phenomena using linearized models of the power system around an operating point and using eigenvalue-based methods.
  • Review of the concepts of eigenvalue analysis of linear systems, addressing the linearizantion of the state equations, the construction of the linear model in the canonic state space form and the physical meaning of eigenvalues, eigenvectors, participation factors, residues and controllability and observability factors.
  • Design of power system damping controllers tackling with the configuration of power system stabilizers (PSS) and the procedures for tuning these PSS.
  • Description of emergency control actions related with load shedding triggered by frequency or voltage (underfrequency, df/dt and undervoltage).
  • Study of advanced stability enhancement techniques (fast valving, generator tripping, control of shunt and series elements including FACTS devices).
  • Application of automatic learning techniques in order to provide fast dynamic security assessment of power systems.
  • The specific situations of isolated and interconnected power systems, with high penetration of wind power production, will be analyzed.

Learning outcomes

  • Be able to master the modeling of synchronous generators, loads, excitation systems, automatic voltage regulators (AVR), prime movers (hydraulic turbines, thermal units) and frequency regulation systems, for dynamic analysis studies.
  • Be capable of using dynamic simulation software for the purpose of developing transient and dynamic analysis.
  • Be capable of understanding several dynamic phenomena that arrive during normal and abnormal operating conditions that follows system disturbances.
  • Understand the operation of Automatic Generation Control in systems with several control areas.
  • Identify the nature of power system oscillations and characterize such oscillations using modal analysis. Be familiar with power system stabilizers and the procedures for tuning these controllers to increase the damping of electromechanical modes of oscillation.
  • Understand emergency control actions like load shedding triggered by frequency or voltage (underfrequency and undervoltage).
  • Be aware of the methodology required to apply automatic learning techniques in order to obtain on-line dynamic security assessment tools.

 


Introduction to Economics

1st Semester, Mandatory/Optional (must choose one of the two M/O), 6 ECTS
Lecturer: Carlos Gouveia Pinto – Associate Professor, Dept. Economics, ISEG/UTL

Main topics

  • Introduction
  • Consumer theory
  • Business theory
  • Markets
  • General equilibrium

Learning outcomes
This course aims to provide a solid foundation in microeconomics to those students whose background is not extensive in economics or business administration. Since most students will have taken introductory courses in these subjects, this program expands on previous knowledge through exposure to key economic theories as well as the mathematical and graphic application of economic theories.


Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment

1st Semester, Mandatory, 6 ECTS
Lecturer: Manuel Pacheco Coelho - Assistant Professor, Dept. Economics, ISEG/UTL

Main topics

  • The economy of natural resources
    • Basic model for the management of a renewable resource
    • Model dynamics and optimum control
    • The ‘tragedy of commons’ and the problem of property rights
    • Biodiversity and the risk of species extinction
    • Hotelling rule and the optimum management of non-renewable resources
  • Environmental Economics
    • Externalities and the ‘anatomy of the failed market’
    • Valorization of environmental goods
    • Economy of the pollution
    • Uncertainty, irreversibility and precaution
  • Case studies

Learning outcomes
This course focuses on the problems of natural resources management. Students learn to determine and substantiate the criteria that must be met to optimize resource use; explain the agent behaviors regarding the production and use of resources accounting for different market structures; establish representative behavior typologies regarding different institutional frameworks; and identify the politics and institutional frameworks that promote the efficient management of resources.


Projects Evaluation and Externalities

2nd Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS
Lecturer: Muradali Ibrahimo - Assistant Professor, Dept. Economics, ISEG/UTL

Main topics

  • Introduction to project evaluation
  • Project evaluation techniques
  • Economical analysis of projects
  • Analysis of the impacts of projects externalities
  • Risk assessment in project evaluation
  • Case studies in the energy sector

Learning outcomes
This course provides students with investment project evaluation techniques and the calculation of relevant externalities for decision making. Theoretical formulations will be provided, together with the analysis of case studies, including financial and economic aspects, impact and risk assessment. The energy sector will be used as a reference.


Computational Intelligence and Power Systems

1st Semester, Optional, 7.5 ECTS
Lecturer: Vladimiro Miranda - Full Professor, Dept. Electrical and Computing Engineering, FEUP

Main topics

  • Information Theoretic Learning as a basis for tuning parameters in parameter-dependent models; Renyi’s Entropy; estimation of entropy using Parzen windows
  • Training systems using entropy as criterion replacing MES—mean square error; parameter estimation
  • Review of evolutionary algorithms main concepts
  • Common framework among Evolutionary Programming, Evolution Strategies and Genetic Algorithms; theoretical concepts behind evolutionary methods; probabilistic models for the rate of progress; self-adaptive models; self-adaptation in mutation and in recombination operators; correlation among space dimensions.
  • Particle Swarm models (PSO); theoretical concepts based on differential equation dynamics behind PSO; importance of the communication network among particles
  • Evolutionary PSO; stochastic star model for communication among individuals
  • Review of neural networks: TDNN (time delayed neural networks) and SOM (self-organizing maps); training of neural networks using EPSO.
  • Adapting Entropy as a criterion in evolutionary models for network training and parameter tuning.
  • Review of Fuzzy Control. Fuzzy Inference Systems and controller models of the Mamdani and Takagi Sugeno type; training fuzzy controllers with evolutionary methods and with entropy criterion.
  • Review of applications of Computational Intelligence models and techniques to Power System problems.
  • Study of important landmark models adopting the use of computational intelligence techniques:
    • distribution expansion planning: models for dynamic planning and uncertainty represented as a tree of scenarios, based on genetic algorithms and evolutionary programming
    • unit commitment: models for a classical vertically integrated system and for market environments, based on genetic algorithms
    • hydro-thermal coordination: models based on evolutionary programming
    • load curve and consumption pattern clustering: models based on neural networks
    • reactive power control: models based on EPSO
    • dynamic security preventive control: models based on neural networks and EPSO

Learning outcomes
Students will be able to understand the concepts underlying simulation and optimization based on learning and adaptation, making contact with the most advanced modern models and techniques. They will also gain advanced insight into the general problem of tuning parameters of models representative of real systems., as well as gain knowledge on the application of such techniques to selected power systems problems. The focus will be on problems with double characteristics: high complexity and large scale. On completion of this course, students will be move from naïve models to being able to build sophisticated models in a diversity of complex, large-scale Power Systems requiring optimization and parameter tuning.


Seminar

2nd Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
Lecturers:
Eduardo de Oliveira Fernandes
 - Full Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, FEUP
João Peças Lopes - Full Professor, Dept. Electrical and Computing Engineering, FEUP
Vítor Leal - Invited Assistant Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Management, FEUP

Main topics

  • Research methodologies
  • Urban metabolism
  • Multi-objective scenarios
  • Shell on the long-term prospects for fossil fuels
  • European energy planning and regulations
  • Industrial ecology
  • Climate change economics

Learning outcomes
Through seminars given by invited speakers, students will be introduced to topics that are a complement to their studies, as well as information about other research centers’ R&D projects and projects that are being developed by industry.


Energy Efficiency

2nd Semester, Optional, 7.5 ECTS
Lecturer: Eduardo de Oliveira Fernandes - Full Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, FEUP

Main topics

  • Energy efficiency. Concept. Context. Ways of expressing ee. Assignments.
  • Energy quantification. Indicators. Benchmarking. Audit. Reporting.
  • Heat and the energy conversion processes. Basics of Thermodynamics. 
  • Thermodynamic cycles.
  • Energy qualification. The heat management issue. Exergy.
  • Energy efficiency and environment. Combustion.
  • Energy efficiency and environment. Combustion of biomass.
  • Co-generation and energy efficiency.
  • Energy efficiency and electricity case. 
  • Energy efficiency and technologies.
  • Energy efficiency systems approach. Cities.
  • Energy efficiency. Assignments presentation.

Learning outcomes


Market Simulation

2nd Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
Lecturer: Jorge Vasconcelos - Invited Full Professor, IN+, IST-Technical University of Lisbon 

Main topics

This course includes the following topics:

  • Simulation of market models and operating structures resulting from the adoption of market mechanisms in the electricity sector by optimization decomposition theory and DESS
  • Expand the simulation to include decisions by players in the wholesale and retail sectors
  • Include decision rules by ISO/TSO Market Operators for security
  • Compare discriminatory and uniform price auctions
  • Expand market simulations of multiple periods to generate price signals across the supply chain over various time periods
  • Expand models to include bilateral, physical and financial contracts
  • Expand models to include transportation congestion and methods to alleviate congestion
  • Model the scheduling of ancillary services in this new structure; modeling the unbundling of ancillary services from active power as complex bids
  • Implementation of markets for some ancillary services and analysis of the strategies in such multiple markets; particular emphasis will be given to voltage control/reactive power
  • Develop equilibrium models as a way to represent competitive electricity markets in which the players aim at maximizing their benefits over a time horizon to justify system expansion
  • Introduction to integration of renewable/sustainable energy sources as distributed generation impacting the power system network
  • Introduction of environmental markets as an additional component of the Leontief model
  • Simulate models that evolve game theoretical models as adaptive agents including the strategies to demonstrate use of portfolio analysis with illustrative examples
  • Model analysis of the interaction between futures and spot market strategies using risk analysis and hedging
  • Introduction to investment analysis using discounted cash flow from equilibrium models and stochastic processes valued by real options; discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of both methods
  • Introduction to comparisons of Monte Carlo techniques, decision trees, dynamic programming, and real option binomial valuations

Learning outcomes
The course on Markets and Simulation aims to analyze the issues faced by firms and regulators in the new liberalized electricity markets by Decomposed Optimization Theory. This involves simulating the most relevant models that form the new skeleton of power systems: unbundling of customers from the traditional utility as aggregations by GENCOs, ESCOs, EMCOs, and LSEs. We will simulate alternative integrated tariff systems in order to establish decision support systems as used by market players with creative regulation and regulatory approaches; simulations to include nodal marginal pricing, financial transmission rights (FTRs), and other contracts for ancillary services. Course includes repeated market play to determine the existence and the stability of equilibrium models for energy pricing and investment analysis is central to the expanded simulations with the use of parametric analysis. Repeated play will be extended by inclusion of real options for pricing. In addition, inclusion of futures markets and option contracts to evaluate the market price signals for electricity and for valuating equipment expansion plans. An important objective of this course is to help students develop the capacity to work autonomously, do bibliographic research, prepare written reports and deliver oral presentations.


Energy Demand Side Management

2nd Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
Lecturers:
Vítor Leal - Invited Assistant Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, FEUP

Main topics

  • Introduction: the comprehensive approach toward DSM; from electric power systems peak shaving to territorial planning
  • The role of DSM today: an historic perspective of energy uses; DSM in light of the IPCC; other perspectives on DSM; the economics of DSM

Evaluation methods
Risk assessment

  • DSM in Residential Buildings
    • The envelope
    • Domestic appliances
    • Heat and cooling equipment
    • Building Integrated Renewables
  • DSM in Non-Residential Buildings
    • The envelope
    • Lighting
    • HVAC
    • Equipment
  • DSM in Industry
    • Energy uses in industry
    • Energy audits in industry
    • Process integration (Pinch method)
    • Cogeneration
    • Efficiency in electric machines
  • DSM in Transports
    • Efficiency and economics of Transportation modes
    • Vehicle technologies and efficiencies
    • Factors from outside: Land use/territorial planning
    • Perspectives on the future of transportation
  • DSM in Agriculture
  • DSM of Electricity
    • The perspective of the utilities
    • New perspectives
  • DSM and Market Mechanisms
    • Market Mechanisms for promoting DSM
    • The role of ESCOs

Learning outcomes
With this course, students will gain a comprehensive approach toward the Energy Demand Side Management at an Energy System; develop a methodology of critical analysis of the energy needs and of the factors that influence it in each of the Energy Systems sub-sectors: Buildings (residential and Non- Residential), Transportation, Industry, Agriculture, etc.; review the state-of-the-art and expected energy efficiency/demand-side management technologies and processes in each of the energy system sub-sectors; and review the international and national trends on energy-efficiency/demand-side management, including policies and market mechanisms.


Electrical Systems with Renewables

2nd Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
Lecturers:

João Peças Lopes - Full Professor, Dept. Electrical and Computing Engineering, FEUP
Cláudio Monteiro - Assistant Professor,
Dept. Electrical and Computing Engineering, FEUP

Main topics

  • Detailed modeling of different types of renewable energy conversion systems. Brief description of wind energy conversion technologies: asynchronous generators, double fed induction machines, variable speed electronically interfaced units.
  • Impacts of renewable energy conversion systems on power quality (Voltage deeps, Harmonic, Flicker); definition of wind power integration limits in order to keep power quality levels. Impacts of wind power on grid voltage stability and system dynamic behaviour; Ride-through-faults requirements (the grid perspective and manufacturers solutions); new control solutions to improve system behavior in scenarios with large-scale integration of wind generation (use of external solutions—FACTS, participation of wind generators in voltage and frequency control). Use of wind generators to damp system electromechanical oscillations.
  • Overview of PV systems, describing the current developments. Photovoltaic electric principles, describing the fundamentals of photovoltaic physics, equivalents electric circuit of PV cell, determination of operation point of PV cell and panel. Influence of electrical characteristics, radiance and temperature in the cell performance. Sizing PV systems, including solar resource evaluation, optimal sizing of PV system components (PV generators, inverters, batteries, system wiring, protections and metering systems). Connecting PV systems to the electric grid. Wide scale planning of PV systems integration, definition of incentives and feed in tariffs.
  • Grid code requirements and new hierarchical managing control structures.
  • Economic Issues: Remuneration of renewable energy systems (feed-in tariffs, quota system, price premium, investment grant, tax reimbursement, bidding); Participation of in electricity markets (including ancillary services markets); Combined wind generation / storage operation (optimizing wind – hydro pumping operation).
  • Microgeneration and microgrids:
    • Microsources: overview of microsources technological aspects and dynamic modeling of fuel cells, microturbines, PV and micro-wind turbines. MicroGrids: concept, architecture, hierarchical and distributed control, operating modes.
    • Power electronic interfaces: modeling and control of power electronic interfaces (AC/DC/AC and DC/AC) for interconnecting microsources with the electric grid.
    • MicroGrid control for islanded operation: the need of storage devices to run into islanded operation; single-master and multi-master operation; primary and secondary frequency control; voltage control; load following in islanded operation.
    • Service restoration: requirements to use MicroGrids in service restoration procedures; sequence of actions for black start; synchronization with the main grid.
    • MicroGrid safety and electrical protection requirements: grounding of the MicroGrid; inverters ride-though faults capabilities and fault current contribution from inverters; fault currents within the MicroGrid in islanded and interconnected operation.
    • Multi-microgrids: DG and MicroGrids management operation and control;
    • Vehicle to grid.

Learning outcomes
Students will become familiar with different energy conversion systems that exploit renewable power sources (hydro, PV, wind, wave energies); become familiar with the control techniques used namely in PV and wind generation; obtain a deep view of the existing control techniques used in wind energy conversion systems; become capable of identifying the main problems for operation and expansion of electric power systems resulting from a large scale integration of renewable power sources; become capable of understanding the needs for protection coordination in power systems new energy conversion systems; be familiar with different micro-generation technologies and its dynamic models for dynamic stability studies; understand MicroGrid operation, management and control strategies for islanded and grid-connected operation; become familiar with microgrid and micro-generators protections. understand the need for SmartGrid development.


Optimization and Decision Support Techniques

2nd Semester, Optional, 7.5 ECTS
Lecturers:

Ana Maria Camanho - Assistant Professor, Dept. Industrial Engineering and Management, FEUP
Manuel Matos - Full Professor, Dept. Electrical and Computing Engineering, FEUP

Main topics

  • Linear programming (problem formulation, solving the problem by the simplex method, sensitivity analysis; use of commercial software for solving linear programming problems: Excel and Lingo).
  • Transportation and Assignment problems. Special algorithms for the transportation method (transportation simplex method) and for the assignment problem (Hungarian algorithm).
  • Network optimization problems: Shortest-Path problems and Maximum Flow problems.
  • Non-linear programming. Analytical methods for solving non-linear maximization and minimization problems with constraints: The Kuhn-Tucker conditions. Numerical methods to solve multivariable unconstrained optimization problems: the Gradient Search Procedure.
  • Introduction to performance measurement methods. Efficiency assessments using Data Envelopment Analysis and evaluation of productivity change over time using the Malmquist index.
  • Queuing theory. Basic structure of queuing models. Queuing models based on the birthand death process. Classification of queuing systems. The M/M/1 and M/M/s models. The finite queue variation of the M/M/s model (M/M/s/K model) and the finite calling population variation of the M/M/s model.
  • Simulation. Event and process-based approaches to discrete simulation. Discrete simulation software (ARENA). Design of a simulation model. Analysis of simulation output.
  • Introduction to metaheuristics. Principles, formulation and basic algorithms. Applications.
  • Multicriteria decision-aid. Concepts and terminology. The role of the Decision Maker.
  • Multiattribute problems. Trade-off techniques, value functions and the French School.
  • Multiobjective problems. Techniques for generating nondominated alternatives. Interactive methods.
  • Uncertainty and Risk. Decision trees. Decision paradigms. Utility theory. Robust approaches. Methodologies based on multiple risk and opportunity indices.

Learning outcomes
The main objective of this course is to convey to students a global vision of management science principles and techniques, stressing in particular the role of quantitative methods in decision processes involving energy systems.
The specific research objectives are for students to: become familiar with several optimization techniques covered in the course, including linear programming models (LP) and special cases of LP such as transportation problems, assignment problems and network optimization models; become capable of formulating and solving non-linear programming models using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions and interpreting the economic implications of the solution obtained; know how to apply numeric methods to estimate the solution of non-linear optimization models; become capable of using performance assessment methods, in particular, Data Envelopment Analysis and Malmquist indices for efficiency and productivity analysis; understand the principles of queuing theory and to be able to select the appropriate queuing model to analyze a real-word situation; be familiar with discrete event simulation and able to construct simple simulation models using Arena software; understand the principles of multicriteria decision-aid, and to be able to formulate and address multicriteria problems, multiobjective problems and decision problems in an uncertain environment.


Optimization of Energy Systems

2nd Semester, Optional, 6 ECTS
Lecturer: Carlos Silva - Assistant Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, IST/UTL

Main topics

  • Optimization problems
  • Unconstrained optimization; gradient-based methods; constrained optimization
  • Linear programming; quadratic programming; nonlinear programming; sequential quadratic programming
  • Dynamic programming; Integer programming; branch-and-bound algorithms
  • Convex and non-convex optimization
  • Distributed optimization; distributed dynamic programming; synchronous and asynchronous methods
  • Gradient-based distributed optimization; parallel search algorithms; multidimensional distributed optimization
  • Introduction to meta-heuristics; taboo search; genetic algorithms; swarm optimization; biologically inspired meta-heuristics: ant colony optimization and swarm wasps optimization; implementation in distributed problems
  • Applications of energy optimization

Learning outcomes
The main objective is to supply the students with the basics of optimization systems. Students learn how to formulate typical optimization problems, especially in the energy field. Beyond traditional techniques, meta-heuristics will also be addressed, including the very recent meta-heuristics inspired in biologic agents.

 


Energy in Transportation

1st Semester, Optional , 4.5 ECTS
Lecturer: Tiago Farias - Assistant Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, IST/UTL

Main topics

  • The importance of transportation in the total consumption of energy and contribution to the atmospheric pollution
  • The problems of transportation, both of passengers and goods
  • Comparisons among means of transport
  • Models for estimating the energy consumption and emission in transportation
  • Evaluation of externalities
  • Propulsion and fuels for road vehicles
  • The process of formation of pollutants in internal combustion motors
  • Means of reducing the pollution and optimizing consumption
  • Environmental regulations applied to vehicles
  • Propulsion and fuels used in rail transportation
  • Propulsion and fuels used in maritime transportation
  • Propulsion and fuels used by airplanes
  • Some alternative technologies in transportation: (a) the evolution of internal combustion motors; (b) alternative fuels; (c) hybrid vehicles (series and parallel); (d) electrical vehicles with batteries; (e) fuel cells

Learning outcomes
Students will acquire new knowledge in the transportation sector that involves the relationship between the different technologies used in transportation, their energy consumption, and their ecological impact (namely, the emission of atmospheric pollutants).


Energy in Buildings

2nd Semester, Mandatory, 7.5 ECTS
Lecturers:
Vítor Leal - Invited Assistant Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, FEUP
José Luis Alexandre - Assistant Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, FEUP

Main topics

  • Introduction
    • Buildings as thermal systems
    • The share of the building sector in the energy use (final, primary)
    • Energy uses in buildings
    • Policies and trends concerning Energy in Buildings
  • Basics of Thermal Comfort
    • The thermal balance of the human body
    • Conditions for thermal comfort
    • Prediction of thermal comfort
  • Calculation of Thermal Loads
    • Global overview of the thermal balance of a building
    • Loads due to air change (inflitration, ventilation)
    • Internal gains
    • Conduction through the envelope
    • Climatic data
  • Simulation tools
    • Overview the main physical and mathematical models
    • Modelation issues:
  • Geometry and zoning
  • Materials and construction
  • Internal gains
  • Operation controls
  • Weather
  • Equipments and systems
  • Special topics
    • Example software (ESP-r and Energyplus).
  • Bioclimatic strategies
    • Interaction between building materials and local natural resources
    • Building shape and natural shading devices
    • Effect of thermal mass and natural ventilation
    • Low energy cooling systems (evaporative cooling, buried pipes, etc.)
  • Lighting and other electricity uses
    • Artificial lighting technologies. Design guidelines.
    • Daylighting. Principles, tools and interaction with artificial lighting
  • HVAC Equipments
    • Overview of the basic structure of HVAC systems
    • HVAC systems classification
    • Main components
    • Pre-design and design strategies
    • Control strategies and running optimization
  • Integration of renewables into buildings
  • Energy audits
    • Benefits of energy management
    • Definition of different audit approaches (pre-inspection, inspection and generic audit)
    • Energy balance (bill-based)
    • Building energy breakdown
    • Identification of the highest consumer equipments
    • Zoning of the energy plants and distribution (if needed)
    • Rough physic model of the building/system
    • Detailed model
    • Evaluation of energy conservation measures
  • Non-technical strategies to achieve energy-efficient buildings
    • The role of the regulations
    • The labelling schemes
    • Voluntary schemes
    • Regulations
    • Overview of the framework of European and Portuguese regulations
    • The EPBD
    • The SCE, RSECE and RCCTE

Learning outcomes
The goal is for students to: become familiar with the concepts related to the thermal balance, energy use and energy efficiency of buildings; be able to understand the methods for evaluating the energy demand of buildings and for achieving efficient solutions; be able to perform energy simulation and assessment of simple buildings; know the main technologies of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning in Buildings; know the methodology, phases and expected outputs of energy audits in existing buildings; and become aware of the non strictly technical issues influencing the energy performance of buildings.


Wind Energy

2nd Semester, Optional, 7.5 ECTS
Lecturers:
Álvaro Rodrigues - Assistant Professor, Dept. Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Management, FEUP
João Peças Lopes - Full Professor, Dept. Electrical and Computing Engineering, FEUP

Main topics

  • Principles and limits of wind energy coversion. Betz and Glauert approaches.
  • Basic aerodynamics of a wind turbines blade.
  • Control and power limitation mechanisms.
  • The wind. General circulation and local winds. Wind variation in different time scales and other characteristics.
  • Wind measuring campaigns. Methodologies and equipments. Long term wind regime. Wind resource and wind potential.
  • Atmospheric flow models. Mesoscale and microscale models. Linear models and CFD.
  • The project of a wind farm. Selection of the wind turbines. Wind resource and wind farm layout. Estimating the energy yield. Losses and uncertainties. Warranties. Economical aspects.
  • Wind energy in the renewable panorama. The wind industry. Evolution and maturity of the technology. The Portuguese case – a successful history.
  • Perspectives for the future. Onshore, offshore and microgeneration.
  • Technical description of different types of wind generators
  • Power quality standards for wind turbines.
  • Technical regulations for the interconnection of wind farms to Power Systems.
  • Wind power and reserve assessment needs.
  • Wind power in isolated power systems and advanced control and management systems.
  • On-shore and Off-shore wind farms. Transmission systems for off-shore wind farms.
  • Hydrogen as a mean of transporting and balancing wind power production.

Learning outcomes
Students will: become familiar with the wind resource assessment related issues and with the particularities of atmospheric flows regarding the conversion of wind energy; understand the working principles of wind energy conversion systems, both from the aerodynamic and electrical points of view; be familiar with and discuss issues related to the planning of a wind farm, technology selection and wind farm follow-up, concerning the performance of the wind turbines; be familiar with the main control techniques used in wind generation for maximizing wind energy extraction and for proving P/Q control capabilities at the wind energy conversion system level; understand the main problems related with the electrical design of wind farms on-shore and off-shore; be capable of identifying the main problems for operation and expansion of electric power systems resulting from a large-scale integration of renewable power sources; understand the need to forecast wind to help managing the power system and understand the main issues behind the development and exploitation of robust and accurate wind power forecasting tools.